Authors: Er. Ms. Kritika
Affiliation: Independent Researcher


Keywords: Neuroethics, Cybersecurity, Neuroimaging Technologies, BCI
ABSTRACT. The booming landscape of multidisciplinary studies, namely, neuroscience, ethics and cyber security brings into focus the emerging need of developing ethical standards for neural data to the implemented safely in the domain of cyberspace. The synergy between neuroscience and cybersecurity emphasizes the transformative potential of technologies like BCI, EEG, FMRI, MEG etc. highlighting the ethical imperative to bring to light the issues of privacy, autonomy, individual’s right, and security of their neural data. The paper delves into the question of delicacy of neuro data as an emerging concern for cyber professionals as well as individuals to safeguard from the emerging threats of phishing, brain jacking, vishing and implementing proper guidelines and framework to have informed consent before going ahead with their confidential data which can otherwise be misused at the hands of cybercriminals.


[1] J. Das et al., "Neuroscience is ready for neuroethics engagement," Front. Commun., vol. 7, p. 909964, 2022.
[2] M. Ienca et al., "Towards a governance framework for brain data," Neuroethics, vol. 15, no. 2, p. 20, 2022.
[3] Kritika, "Cyber Security and its cognitive ramifications on e-governance," IJIRMF, vol. 9, no. 5, 2023.
[4] Kritika, "Demystifying Cyber Crimes," in Perspectives on Ethical Hacking and Penetration Testing, K. Kaushik and A. Bhardwaj, Eds. IGI Global, 2023, pp. 63–94. [Online]. Available:
[5] J. Jain and P. R. Pal, "A recent study over cyber security and its elements," Int. J. Adv. Res. Comput. Sci., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 791–793, 2017.
[6] N. Ammour, Y. Bazi, and N. Alajlan, "Multimodal Approach for Enhancing Biometric Authentication," J. Imaging, vol. 9, no. 9, p. 168, 2023.
[7] F. Babiloni and P. Cherubino, "Consumer Neuroscience: A Neural Engineering Approach," in Handbook of Neuroengineering, Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore, 2023, pp. 2861–2889.
[8] J. A. Olson et al., "Emulating future neurotechnology using magic," Conscious. Cogn., vol. 107, p. 103450, 2023.
[9] Y. Eski, A Criminology of the Human Species: Setting an Unsettling Tone. Springer Nature, 2023.
[10] N. Liv and D. Greenbaum, "Cyberneurosecurity," in Policy, Identity, and Neurotechnology: The Neuroethics of Brain-Computer Interfaces, Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2023, pp. 233–251.
[11] J. Peksa and D. Mamchur, "State-of-the-Art on Brain-Computer Interface Technology," Sensors, vol. 23, no. 13, p. 6001, 2023.
[12] M. A. Lebedev and M. A. Nicolelis, "Brain-Machine Interfaces: From Basic Science to Neuroprostheses and Neurorehabilitation," Physiol. Rev., vol. 97, pp. 767–837, 2017.
[13] Z. Zhao et al., "Modulating Brain Activity with Invasive Brain–Computer Interface: A Narrative Review," Brain Sci., vol. 13, no. 1, p. 134, 2023, doi: 10.3390/brainsci13010134.
[14] S. Saha et al., "Progress in Brain Computer Interface: Challenges and Opportunities," Front. Syst. Neurosci., vol. 15, p. 578875, 2021.
[15] A. Saibene et al., "EEG-Based BCIs on Motor Imagery Paradigm Using Wearable Technologies: A Systematic Review," Sensors, vol. 23, no. 5, p. 2798, 2023, doi: 10.3390/s23052798.
[16] M. C. Litwińczuk, N. Trujillo-Barreto, N. Muhlert, L. Cloutman, and A. Woollams, "Relating cognition to both brain structure and function: A systematic review of methods," Brain Connect., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 120–132, 2023.
[17] T. Morita, M. Asada, and E. Naito, "Contribution of neuroimaging studies to understanding development of human cognitive brain functions," Front. Hum. Neurosci., vol. 10, p. 464, 2016.
[18] C. Yen, C. L. Lin, and M. C. Chiang, "Exploring the frontiers of neuroimaging: a review of recent advances in understanding brain functioning and disorders," Life, vol. 13, no. 7, p. 1472, 2023.
[19] C. Zeng et al., "Advanced high resolution three-dimensional imaging to visualize the cerebral neurovascular network in stroke," Int. J. Biol. Sci., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 552–562, 2022.
[20] E. B. Vanstrum et al., "Development of an ultrafast brain MR neuronavigation protocol for ventricular shunt placement," J. Neurosurg., vol. 138, no. 2, pp. 367–373, 2022.
[21] M. Wang, X. Yin, Y. Zhu, and J. Hu, "Representation learning and pattern recognition in cognitive biometrics: a survey," Sensors, vol. 22, no. 14, p. 5111, 2022.
[22] M. V. Ruiz-Blondet, Z. Jin, and S. Laszlo, "CEREBRE: A novel method for very high accuracy event-related potential biometric identification," IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Secur., vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 1618–1629, 2016.
[23] A. Hadid, N. Evans, S. Marcel, and J. Fierrez, "Biometrics systems under spoofing attack: an evaluation methodology and lessons learned," IEEE Signal Process. Mag., vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 20–30, 2015.
[24] Q. Gui, M. V. Ruiz-Blondet, S. Laszlo, and Z. Jin, "A survey on brain biometrics," ACM Comput. Surv., vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1–38, 2019.
[25] M. Ienca and R. Andorno, "Towards new human rights in the age of neuroscience and neurotechnology," Life Sci. Soc. Policy, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 1, 2017.
[26] H. T. Greely et al., "Neuroethics guiding principles for the NIH BRAIN initiative," J. Neurosci., vol. 38, no. 50, p. 10586, 2018.
[27] S. Burwell, M. Sample, and E. Racine, "Ethical aspects of brain computer interfaces: a scoping review," BMC Med. Ethics, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2017.
[28] S. Rainey et al., "Data and Consent Issues with Neural Recording Devices," in Clinical Neurotechnology meets Artificial Intelligence: Philosophical, Ethical, Legal and Social Implications, 2021, pp. 141–154.
[29] S. Goering et al., "Recommendations for responsible development and application of neurotechnologies," Neuroethics, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 365–386, 2021.
[30] E. Hildt, "What will this do to me and my brain? Ethical issues in brain-to-brain interfacing," Front. Syst. Neurosci., vol. 9, p. 17, 2015.
[31] R. Yuste, "Advocating for neurodata privacy and neurotechnology regulation," Nat. Protoc., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 2869–2875, 2023.
[32] L. Pycroft et al., "Brainjacking: implant security issues in invasive neuromodulation," World Neurosurg., vol. 92, pp. 454–462, 2016.
[33] P. Sommaggio and M. Mazzocca, "Cognitive Liberty and Human Rights," in Neuroscience and Law: Complicated Crossings and New Perspectives, 2020, pp. 95–111.
[34] B. C. M. M. is Mine, "Cognitive Liberty as a Legal Concept," in Cognitive Enhancement. An Interdisciplinary Perspective, E. Hildt and A. G. Franke, Eds. Dordrecht: Springer, 2013, pp. 233–264.
[35] T. Istace, "Neurorights: The Debate About New Legal Safeguards to Protect the Mind," Issues L. Med., vol. 37, p. 95, 2022.
[36] R. Rupp et al., "Brain–computer interfaces and assistive technology," in Brain-Computer-Interfaces in their ethical, social and cultural contexts, 2014, pp. 7–38.
[37] N. Rose, "The human brain project: social and ethical challenges," Neuron, vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 1212–1215, 2014.